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Expanded Reading List - Wittich

This is an expanded reading list and bibliography for researchers.



Archival Collections and Government Documents:

National Archives Microfilm Publications, Microcopy M619. Papers Relating to the Return of the Kickapoo and the Seminole (Negro) Indians from Mexico to the United States, 1870-1885. Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General, rolls 799-800.

National Archives Microfilm Publications, Microcopy M1495. Seminole Negro Indians. Special Files of Headquarters, Division of the Missouri, Aug. 1872-Feb. 1876, roll 13.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins. Papers. Archives Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, NYC.

United States Congress. American State Papers. 38 Volumes, Government Printing Office, 1832-1861.

            House. Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas. 43 Congress, 1 Session, Hse. Ex. Doc. 257.

            House. Mexican Border Troubles. 45 Congress, 1 Session, Hse. Ex. Doc. 13.

            House. The Texas Border Troubles. 45 Congress, 2 Session, Hse. Misc. Doc. 64.



Articles, Essays, Newspapers and Periodicals:

“Black Watch of Texas.” San Antonio Express, 16 Nov. 1924.

Bonnet, W. A. “King Fisher, a Noted Character.” Frontier Times 3, 1926, pp. 36-37.

“Brackettville and Old Fort Clark.” Frontier Times 12, 1935, pp. 349-351.

Butler, Grace L. “General Bullis, Friend of the Frontier.” Frontier Times 12, 1935, pp. 358-363.

Callan, Austin. “The End of the Seminoles.” Frontier Times 8, 1930, pp. 9-11.

Gil, Rocio. “The Mascogo/Black Seminole Diaspora. The Intertwining Borders of Citizenship, Race and Ethnicity.” Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 2014

Hancock, Ian F. “The Black Seminoles of Brackettville, Texas.” The World & I, Dec. 1989, pp. 676-687.

“Creole Features in the Afro-Seminole Speech of Brackettville, Texas.” Society for Caribbean Linguistics Occasional Papers 3, 1975.

“Further Observations on Afro-Seminole Creole.” Caribbean Linguistic Society Occasional Paper, No. 7, 1977.

“History Through Words: Afro-Seminole Lexicography.” Caribbean 2000: Identities and Cultures, edited by L. Fiet and J. Becerra, Rockefeller Foundation Publication, University of Puerto Rico, 1998 , pp. 87-104.

“Maroon Societies and Creole Languages.” Festival of American Folklife, edited by Peter Seitel, Publication of the Smithsonian Institution, 1992, pp. 70-72.

“Texas Gullah: The Creole English of the Brackettville Afro-Seminoles.” Perspectives on American English, edited by Joseph L. Dillard, Mouton, 1980, pp. 305-333.

The Texas Seminoles and their Language. Publication of the Seminole Scout Association, 1991.

Jones, H. C. “Old Seminole Scouts Still Thrive on Border.” Frontier Times 11, 1934, pp. 327-332.

Neal, Charles M. “Incident on Los Moras Creek.” The Annals: Official Publications of the Medal of Honor Historical Society 13, 1990, pp. 16-19.

            “A Negro Trooper of the Ninth Cavalry.” Frontier Times 4, Apr. 1927, pp. 9-11.

Opala, Joseph. “A Brief History of the Seminole Freedmen.” Occasional Paper No. 3 of the African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, The University of Texas, 1980.

“Seminole-African relations on the Florida Frontier.” Anthropology and the Frontier: Papers in Anthropology 22(1), edited by S. Thompson, 1981, pp. 11-51.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins. “Billy Bowlegs (Holta Micco) in the Seminole Wars.” Florida Historical Quarterly 45, 1967, pp. 210-243.

“Davy Crockett and John Horse: A Possible Origin of the Coonskin Story.” American Literature 15, 1943, pp. 10-15.

“Farewell to John Horse: An Episode of Seminole Negro Folk History.” Phylon 8, 1947, pp. 265-73.

“Florida Slaves and Free Negroes in the Seminole War 1835-1842.” Journal of Negro History 28(4), 1943, pp. 390-421.

“Freedom Over Me:  The Story of John Horse.” Unpublished Typescript, 1947.

“The Hawkins Negroes go to Mexico.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 24, 1946, pp. 55-58.

“Lament for Wild Cat.” Phylon 4, 1943, pp. 39-48.

“A Legend of the Biloxi.” Journal of American Folklore 59, 1946, pp. 168-173.

“Negroes and Indians on the Texas Frontier, 1831-1876: A study in Race and Culture.” Journal of Negro History 41, 1956, pp. 185-214.

“Negroes and Indians on the Texas Frontier, 1834-1874.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 53, 1949, pp. 151-163.

“Seminole Flight from Fort Marion.” Florida Historical Quarterly 22, 1944, pp. 112-133.

“Seminole in Mexico, 1850-1861.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 29, 1951, pp. 153-168.

“The Seminole Negro Indian Scouts, 1870-1881.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 55, 1952, pp. 358-377.

“Wild Cat’s Death and Burial.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 21, 1943, pp. 41-43.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins and Edward S. Wallace. “Thunderbolt of the Frontier.” Western New York Posse Branded Book 8, 1961, pp. 73-75, 82-86.

Sturtevant, Willian C. “The Medicine Bundles and Busks of the Florida Seminoles.” Florida Anthropologist 7, 1954, pp. 31-70.

Thompson, Mary Louise. “The Black Watch of Texas.” The San Antonio Express, 16 Nov. 1924.

Thybony, Scott. “Against All Odds, Black Seminoles Won their Freedom.” Smithsonian Magazine 22(5), 1991, pp. 90-101.

Wallace, Edward S. “General John Lapham Bullis, The Thunderbolt of the Texas Frontier, Parts 1 and 2.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 54, 1951, pp. 452-462; 55, 1951, pp. 77-85.

Woodford, Sam, editor. “The Burr G. Duval Diary.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 65, 1962, pp. 487-511.

Woodhull, Frost. “The Seminole Indian Scouts on the Border.” Frontier Times 15, 1937, pp. 118-127.


Black Seminoles and Seminoles

Bartram, William. Travels through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws. Penguin Books, 1996.

Covington, James W. The Seminoles of Florida. University Press of Florida, 1993.

Dixon, Anthony E., and Bruce Edward Twyman. Florida's Negro War: Black Seminoles and the Second Seminole War 1835-1842. 7 Hills Communications, LLC, 2014.

Giddings, Joshua R. The Exiles of Florida: The Crimes Committed by Our Government against the Maroons, Who Fled from South Carolina and Other Slave States, Seeking Protection under Spanish Laws. Facsimile Publisher, 1858.

Guinn, Jeff. Our Land Before We Die: the Proud Story of the Seminole Negro. J.P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2005.

Hancock, Ian F. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. University of Texas, 1980.

Howard, James H., and Willie Lena. Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic and Religion. University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Howard, Rosalyn. Black Seminoles in the Bahamas. University Press of Florida, 2002.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: a Hidden Heritage. Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2012.

Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Littlefield, Daniel F. Africans and Seminoles: from Removal to Emancipation. Greenwood Press, 1977.

Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War. University Press of Florida, 2010.

Mayne Reid, Thomas. Osceola the Seminole: The Red Fawn of the Flower Land. G.W. Carleton, 1859.

McReynolds, Edwin C. The Seminoles. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

Miller, Susan A. Coacoochee's Bones: a Seminole Saga. University Press of Kansas, 2003.

Mock, Shirley Boteler. Dreaming with the Ancestors Black Seminole Women in Texas and Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.

Mulroy, Kevin. Freedom on the Border: the Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas. Texas Tech University Press, 2003.

The Seminole Freedmen: a History. University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.

Opala, Joseph. A Brief History of the Seminole Freedmen. African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, 1980.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins, et al. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. University Press of Florida, 2013.

Schultz, Jack Maurice. The Seminole Baptist Churches of Oklahoma: Maintaining a Traditional Community. University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Snow, Alice Micco, and Susan Enns Stans. Healing Plants: Medicine of the Florida Seminole Indians. University Press of Florida, 2015.

Twyman, Bruce E. Black Seminoles and North American Politics, 1693-1845. Research Press Inc., 1995.

Weisman, Brent Richards. Like Beads on a String. UMI Books on Demand, 1997.

Unconquered People: Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Indians. University Press of Florida, 1999.

Welch, Andrew G. A Narrative of the Early Days and Remembrances of Oceola Nikkanochee, Prince of Econchatti: Facsimile Reproductions of the 1841 Edition, and of the Pamphlets of 1837 and 1847. University Presses of Florida, 1977.

West, Patsy. Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes of Southern Florida. Arcadia Publishing, 2004.

Wickman, Patricia Riles. Osceola's Legacy. University of Alabama Press, 1999.

The Tree That Bends Discourse, Power, and the Survival of Maskoki People. University of Alabama Press, 2009.

Wright, James Leitch. Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People. University of Nebraska Press, 1986.




African American History and Culture

Bailey, Cornelia, and Christena Bledsoe. God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man: a Saltwater Geechee Talks about Life on Sapelo Island. Anchor Books, 2001.

Baker, Lindsay, and Julie P. Baker. The WPA Oklahoma Slave Narratives. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Baptist, Edward E. Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. Basic Books, 2016.

Barnet, Miguel. Biography of a Runaway Slave. Curbstone Press, 1995.

Berlin, Ira, et al. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom. New Press, 1998.

Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press, 1981.

Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Botkin, Benjamin Albert. Lay My Burden Down: a Folk History of Slavery. Delta, 1989.

Cone, James H. The Spirituals and the Blues: an Interpretation. Orbis Books, 2000.

Courlander, Harold. A Treasury of Afro American Folklore. Marlowe & Company, 1996.

Creel, Margaret Washington. A Peculiar People. New York University Press, 1988.

Dorson, Richard Mercer. American Negro Folktales. Fawcett Publishers, 1967.

Douglass, Frederick. Autobiographies. Library of America, 1996.

Durham, Philip, and Everett L. Jones. The Negro Cowboys. University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction, 1863-1877. Harper & Row, 1988.

Forbes, Jack D. Africans and Native Americans: the Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Gates, Henry Louis. The Classic Slave Narratives. Mentor, 1987.

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: the World the Slaves Made. Vintage Books, 1976.

Georgia Writers’ Project. Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies among the Georgia Coastal Negroes. University of Georgia Press, 1986.

Glymph, Thavolia. Out of the House of Bondage: the Transformation of the Plantation Household. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Harris, Theodore D. Black Frontiersman: the Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper, First Black Graduate of West Point. Texas Christian University Press, 2004.

Herskovits, Melville J. The Myth of the Negro Past. Beacon Press, 1958.

Holloway, Joseph E. Africanisms in American Culture. Indiana University Press, 1991.

Hurston, Zora Neale, et al. Barracoon: the Story of the Last "Black Cargo". Amistad, an Imprint of HarperCollins Publishers, 2019.

Jones, Bessie, and Bess Lomax Hawes. Step It Down: Games, Plays, Songs, and Stories from the Afro-American Heritage. University of Georgia Press, 1987.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West: a Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Expansion of the United States. Touchstone, 1996.

Keckley, Elizabeth. Behind the Scenes: Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House. University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Kendi, Ibram X. Stamped from the Beginning: the Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. Nation Books, 2016.

Kly, Yussuf Naim. The Invisible War: the African American Anti-Slavery Resistance from the Stono Rebellion through the Seminole Wars. Clarity Press, 2006.

Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom. Oxford University Press, 1978.

Love, Nat. The Life and Adventures of Nat Love. University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Massey, Sara R. Black Cowboys of Texas. Texas A & M University Press, 2005.

McRae, Bennie J., et al. Nineteenth Century Freedom Fighters: the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. Arcadia, 2007.

Mellon, James. Bullwhip Days: The Slaves Remember. Avon, 1990.

Miles, Tiya. Ties That Bind the Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. University of California Press, 2005.

Minges, Patrick N. Black Indian Slave Narratives. John F. Blair, 2004.

Opala, Joseph. The Gullah: Rice, Slavery, and the Sierra Leone - American Connection. 1987.

Puckett, Newbell Niles. Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. Patterson Smith, 1968.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: the "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press, 2004.

Rawick, George P. From Sundown to Sunup: the Making of the Black Community. Greenwood Publishers, 1973.

Rivers, Larry Eugene. Slavery in Florida. University Press of Florida, 2014.

Rosenbaum, Art, et al. Shout Because You're Free: the African American Ring Shout Tradition in Coastal Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 2013.

Sobel, Mechal. Trabelin' On: the Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Sterling, Dorothy. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. W.W. Norton & Company, 1984.

Stuckey, Sterling. Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Taylor, Susie King, et al. A Black Woman's Civil War Memoirs. Markus Wiener Publishers, 1995.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. Vintage Books, 1984.

Turner, Lorenzo Dow. Africansims in the Gullah Dialect. University of Chicago Press, 1949.

Tyler, Ronnie C. and L.R. Murphy, editors. The Slave Narratives of Texas. Encino Press, 1974.

Texas/Kinney County/Rangers/Law and Race in the West

Barr, Alwyn. Black Texans: a History of African Americans in Texas, 1528-1995. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Reconstruction to Reform: Texas Politics, 1876-1906. Southern Methodist University Press, 2000.

Bean, Christopher B. Too Great a Burden to Bear: the Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas. Fordham University Press, 2016.

Chang, David A. The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832-1929. University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Chapman, Helen. The News from Brownsville: Helen Chapman's Letters from the Texas Military Frontier, 1848-1852. Edited by Caleb Coker, Texas State Historical Association, 1992.

Crouch, Barry A. The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Texans. University of Texas Press, 1999.

De León, Arnoldo. Racial Frontiers: Africans, Chinese, and Mexicans in Western America, 1848-1890. University of New Mexico Press, 2002.

Durham, George, and Clyde Wantland. Taming the Nueces Strip: the Story of McNelly's Rangers. University of Texas Press, 2006.

Fisher, Ovie C., and Jefferson C. Dykes. King Fisher: His Life and Times. University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

Haenn, William F. Fort Clark and Brackettville: Land of Heroes. Arcadia, 2002.

Howell, Kenneth Wayne. Still the Arena of Civil War: Violence and Turmoil in Reconstruction Texas, 1865-1874. University of North Texas Press, 2012.

Jennings, N. A. A Texas Ranger: Napoleon Augustus, 1856-1919. University of Oklahoma Press, 1936.

Marcy, Randolph B. The Prairie Traveler: a Hand-Book for Overland Expeditions, with Maps, Illustrations, and Itineraries of the Principal Routes between the Mississippi and the Pacific. Applewood Books, 1993.

Matthews, Sallie Reynolds. Interwoven:A Pioneer Chronicle. Texas A & M University Press, 1982.

Moneyhon, Carl H. Texas after the Civil War: the Struggle of Reconstruction. Texas A & M University Press, 2004.

Montgomery, Cora. Popular Travels, Eagle Pass: Life on The Isthmus. Putnam, 1852.

Neal, Bill. Getting Away with Murder on the Texas Frontier: Notorious Killings & Celebrated Trials. Texas Tech University Press, 2006.

Nofi, Albert A. The Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History. Da Capo Press, 2001.

O'Shea, Elena Zamora. El Mesquite: a Story of the Early Spanish Settlements between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. Texas A & M University Press, 2000.

Pingenot, Ben E. Paso Del Aguila: a Chronicle of Frontier Days on the Texas Border as Recorded in the Memoirs of Jesse Sumpter. Encino Press, 1969.

Ritchie, Michael James, and Davis L. Carrillo. Legends of Kinney County. Kinney County Historical Commission, 1996.

Santleben, August. A Texas Pioneer: Early Staging and Overland Freighting Days on the Frontiers of Texas and Mexico. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2008.

Smallwood, James M. Time of Hope, Time of Despair: Black Texans during Reconstruction. Kennikat Press, 1981.

Smallwood, James, et al. Murder and Mayhem: the War of Reconstruction in Texas. Texas A & M University Press, 2003.

Taylor, Quintard. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990. W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.

Taylor, Quintard, and Shirley Wilson Moore. African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000. University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

Truth, Sojourner, and Nell Irvin Painter. Narrative of Sojourner Truth: a Bondswoman of Olden Time, with a History of Her Labors and Correspondence Drawn from Her Book of Life. Penguin Books, 1998.

Wagner, Tricia Martineau. African American Women of the Old West. TwoDot, 2007.



Soldiers, Scouts, Military

Adams, Kevin. Class and Race in the Frontier Army Military: Life in the West, 1870-1890. University of Oklahoma Press, 2014.

Bode, E. A. A Dose of Frontier Soldiering: the Memoirs of Corporal E. A. Bode, Frontier Regular Infantry, 1877-1882. Edited by Thomas T. Smith, University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Boyd, Oremus B. Cavalry Life in Tent & Field. University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Carter, Robert Goldthwaite. On the Border with Mackenzie, or, Winning West Texas from the Comanches. Texas State Historical Association, 2011.

Dunlay, Thomas W. Wolves for the Blue Soldiers: Indian Scouts and Auxiliaries with the United States Army, 1860-90. University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Field, Ron. US Army Frontier Scouts, 1840-1921. Osprey, 2003.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment, and Other Writings. Penguin Classics, 1997.

Kellogg, Miner K. M.K. Kellogg's Texas Journal, 1872. University of Texas Press, 1967.

Knight, Oliver. Life and Manners in the Frontier Army. University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Laurence, Mary Leefe. Daughter of the Regiment: Memoirs of a Childhood in the Frontier Army, 1878-1898. Edited by Thomas T. Smith, Bison Books, 1999.

Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers: a Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

Leiker, James N. Racial Borders: Black Soldiers Along the Rio Grande. Texas A & M University Press, 2009.

McConnell, H. H. Five Years a Cavalryman, or, Sketches of Regular Army Life on the Texas Frontier, 1866-1871. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Pierce, Michael D. Most Promising Young Officer: a Life of Ranald Slidell Mackenzie. University Of Oklahoma Press, 2016.

Pirtle, Caleb, and Michael F. Cusack. The Lonely Sentinel: Fort Clark, on Texas's Western Frontier. Eakin Press, 1985.

Powell, Anthony, and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Buffalo Soldiers. Pomegranate, 1996.

Richter, William Lee. The Army in Texas during Reconstruction, 1865-1870. Texas A & M University Press, 1987.

Rickey, Don. Forty Miles a Day on Beans and Hay: the Enlisted Soldier Fighting the Indian Wars. University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Robinson, Charles M. Bad Hand: a Biography of General Ranald S. Mackenzie. State House Press, 1993.

Smith, Sherry L. The View from Officers' Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians. University of Arizona Press, 1995.

Smith, Thomas T., et al. The Reminiscences of Major General Zenas R. Bliss, 1854-1876: from the Texas Frontier to the Civil War and Back Again. Texas State Historical Association, 2007.

Stallard, Patricia Y. Glittering Misery: Dependents of the Indian Fighting Army. University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Swanson, Don. Chronicles of Fort Clark Texas. Eakin Press, 2003.

Thompson, Richard A. Crossing the Border with the 4th Cavalry: MacKenzie's Raid into Mexico, 1873. Texian Press, 1986.

Wallace, Ernest. Ranald S. Mackenzie on the Texas Frontier. Texas A & M University Press, 1993.

Wooster, Robert. Frontier Crossroads: Fort Davis and the West. Texas A&M University Press, 2006.

Soldiers, Sutlers, and Settlers: Garrison Life on the Texas Frontier. Texas A & M University Press, 1987.



Carrigan, William D., and Clive Webb. Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans in the United States, 1848-1928. Oxford University Press, 2017.

De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821-1900. University of Texas Press, 1983.

Greenberg, Amy S. A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. Invasion of Mexico. Vintage Books, 2013.

Guardino, Peter. The Dead March: a History of the Mexican-American War. Harvard University Press, 2017.

Johnson, Benjamin Heber. Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans. Yale University Press, 2003.

Larralde, Carlos, and Jose Rodolfo Jacobo. Juan N. Cortina and the Struggle for Justice in Texas. Kendall/Hunt, 2000.

Latorre, Dolores L. Cooking and Curing with Mexican Herbs: Recipes and Remedies Gathered in Múzquiz, Coahuila. Encino, 1977.

Martínez Oscar J. Border Boom Town: Ciudad Juárez since 1848. University of Texas Press, 1978.

McKellar, Margaret Maud. Life on a Mexican Ranche. Lehigh University Press, 1994.

Moral, Paulina del, and Alicia Siller V. Recetario Mascogo De Coahuila. Conaculta, Culturas Populares, 2014.

Nichols, James David. Limits of Liberty: Mobility and the Making of the Eastern U.S.-Mexico Border. University of Nebraska Press, 2018.

Reese, Linda Williams. Trail Sisters: Freedwomen in Indian Territory, 1850-1890. Texas Tech University Press, 2017.

Schwartz, Rosalie. Across the Rio to Freedom. U.S. Negroes in Mexico. Texas Western Press,  1975.

Thompson, Jerry D. Cortina: Defending the Mexican Name in Texas. Texas A & M University Press, 2007.

Juan Cortina and the Texas-Mexico Frontier: 1859-1877. University of Texas, 1994.

Tijerina Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos. Texas A & M University Press, 2008.


Apache (I think Apache and Indians should stay in, because of Teresita and because of the close connections with Scouts as enemies/alliances - but I could cut it down even more. But if it interests anyone, then they will be delighted to have this longer version.)

Archer, Jane. Texas Indian: Myths & Legends. Republic of Texas Press, 2000.

Ball, Eve, et al. Indeh: an Apache Odyssey. University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Ball, Eve. In the Days of Victorio: Recollections of a Warm Springs Apache. The University of Arizona Press, 1994.

Boyer, Ruth McDonald, and Narcissus Duffy Gayton. Apache Mothers and Daughters: Four Generations of a Family. Oklahoma University Press, 1997.

Bray, Dorothy. Western Apache-English Dictionary: a Community-Generated Bilingual Dictionary. Bilingual Press, 2002.

Britten, Thomas A. The Lipan Apaches: People of Wind and Lightning. University of New Mexico Press, 2011.

Brown, Tom, and William Jon Watkins. The Tracker: the Story of Tom Brown, Jr. as Told to William Jon Watkins. Berkley Books, 1979.

Brown, Tom. Awakening Spirits. Berkley Books, 1994.

Grandfather. Berkley Books, 2004.

The Vision. Berkley Books, 1998.

The Way of the Scout. Berkley Books, 1997.

Buchanan, Kimberley Moore. Apache Women Warriors. The University of Texas at El Paseo, 1986.

Buckelew, F. M., and T. S. Dennis. Life of F.M. Buckelew, the Indian Captive. Herring Print. Co., 1985.

Chebahtah, William, and Nancy McGown Minor. Chevato The Story of the Apache Warrior Who Captured Herman Lehmann. University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Comfort, Will Levington. Apache. University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

Goodwin, Grenville, and Keith H. Basso. Western Apache Raiding and Warfare. University of Arizona Press, 2004.

Greene, A. C. The Last Captive. Encino Press, 1972.

Haley, James L. Apaches: a History and Culture Portrait. University of Oklahoma Press, 1997.

Hutton, Paul Andrew. The Apache Wars: the Hunt for Geronimo, the Apache Kid, and the Captive Boy Who Started the Longest War in American History. Broadway Books, 2016.

Minor, Nancy McGown. The Light Gray People: an Ethno-History of the Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico. University Press of America, 2009.

Turning Adversity to Advantage: a History of the Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico, 1700-1900. University Press of America, 2009.

Opler, Morris Edward, and Charles R. Kaut. An Apache Life-Way: the Economic, Social, and Religious Institutions of the Chiricahua Indians. University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

Opler, Morris Edward. Apache Odyssey: a Journey between Two Worlds. University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

Myths And Legends of The Lipan Apache Indians. Literary Licensing, LLC, 2011.

Myths and Tales of the Jicarilla Apache Indians. Kraus Reprint, 1976.

Roberts, David. Once They Moved like the Wind: Cochise, Geronimo, and the Apache Wars. Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Robinson, Sherry, and Eve Ball. Apache Voices: Their Stories of Survival as Told to Eve Ball. University of New Mexico Press, 2003.

Robinson, Sherry. I Fought a Good Fight: a History of the Lipan Apaches. University of North Texas Press, 2013.

Smallwood, James M. The Indian Texans. Texas A&M University Press, 2004.

Smith, Clinton L. The Boy Captives. San Saba Printing & Office Supply, 1999.

Stockel, H. Henrietta. Women of the Apache Nation: Voices of Truth. University Of Nevada Press, 1993.


Kickapoo, Comanche, Native Americans and Captivity Stories

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. Indian Fights and Fighters. University Of Nebraska Press, 1978.

Clark, W. P. The Indian Sign Language. University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

Drimmer, Frederick, et al. Captured by the Indians: 15 Firsthand Accounts, 1750-1870. Dover, 1985.

Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind in a Linear World. Routledge, 2003.

Gibson, Arrell M. The Kickapoos: Lords of the Middle Border. University of Oklahoma Press, 1975.

Gwynne, S. C. Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History. Scribner, 2010.

Latorre, Felipe A., and Dolores L. Latorre. The Mexican Kickapoo Indians. University of Texas Press, 1976.

Lehmann, Herman. Nine Years among the Indians: 1870-1879. University of New Mexico Press, 1994.

Newcomb, William W. The Indians of Texas: from Prehistoric to Modern Times. University of Texas Press, 1995.

Potomac Corral of the Westerners. Great Western Indian Fights. University of Nebraska Press, 1960.

Rejón Manuel García, and Daniel J. Gelo. Comanche Vocabulary. University of Texas Press, 1995.

Rister, Carl Coke. Comanche Bondage: Dr. John Charles Beales's Settlement of La Villa De Dolores on Las Moras Creek in Southern Texas of the 1830's. with an Annotated Reprint of Sarah Ann Horn's Narrative of Her Captivity among the Comanches, Her Ransom by Traders in New Mexico and Return via the Santa Fé Trail. University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Wallace, Ernest, and E. Adamson Hoebel. The Comanches: Lords of the South Plains. University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

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